Excerpt: A cellphone and a few seconds of time. That’s all residents of northern Michigan need to take part in a new project designed to improve management and conservation of a vital natural resource: fresh water.

The idea behind the endeavor is simple but impactful. Fishermen, boaters and other outdoor enthusiasts text data on river levels and temperature to scientists. Then, the project team feeds this and other information into a computer model that generates a seven-day forecast of water conditions.

The pilot location is the Boyne River in Michigan, where researchers have set up five citizen-science stations that feature stream height gauges, with temperature gauges to be installed in the fall. Three additional state-of-the-art gauges will collect similar data at other spots along the Boyne.

Source: Hsu, C., 2017. Citizen scientists to help with forecasts for rivers, streams with texted data. Available at http://www.buffalo.edu/ubnow/stories/2017/09/lowry-stream-forecast.html [Last accessed 2 October 2017].

Excerpt: Smith River floaters will be asked next year to help the state document algae blooms in what officials are calling a “test pilot” project for citizen science on one of Montana’s most renowned rivers.

As letters go out next year to the winners of highly coveted float permits, they will come with a request to download a yet-to-be-completed cellphone app. Once downloaded, floaters may take photos of algae blooms and upload the data to state officials after takeout.

The Montana Department of Environmental Quality and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks will then have the data as the agencies study a recent increase in reports of algae in the river.

“This is a new one for us as we’re really looking at how to retool our citizen engagement, and getting people on the ground,” said Eric Urban, water quality planning bureau chief with DEQ. “It’s pretty remote, so getting on the ground and seeing it ourselves poses some challenges.”

Source: Kuglin, T., 2017. Smith River float permit winners will be asked to help document algae on their adventures, 21 September 2017. Available at a href=”http://helenair.com/lifestyles/recreation/smith-river-float-permit-winners-will-be-asked-to-help/article_68bffda6-5b99-5f50-99ab-8745ac2fd222.html” target=”_blank” rel=”noopener”>http://helenair.com/lifestyles/recreation/smith-river-float-permit-winners-will-be-asked-to-help/article_68bffda6-5b99-5f50-99ab-8745ac2fd222.html [Last accessed 2 October 2017].

Editor’s Choice: Now focusing on imagery from Hurricane Maria, the Planetary Response Network continues the important work outlined here for the devastation caused by Hurricane Irma. This effort and others like it still need your help – this is where citizen science can actually save lives! –LFF–

Excerpt: A highly unusual collaboration between information engineers at Oxford, the Zooniverse citizen science platform and international disaster response organization Rescue Global is enabling a rapid and effective response to Hurricane Irma.

The project draws on the power of the Zooniverse, the world’s largest and most popular people-powered research platform, to work with volunteers and crowd source the data needed to understand Irma’s path of destruction and the damage caused. Combining these insights with detailed artificial intelligence will support rescue relief organisations to understand the scale of the crisis, and deliver aid to those worst affected as soon as possible.

Photo of Hurricane Irma by NOAA/CIR

Source: University of Oxford, 2017. Using AI, citizen science and disaster response to help victims of Hurricane Irma, 20 September 2017. Available at: https://phys.org/news/2017-09-ai-citizen-science-disaster-response.html [Last accessed 2 October, 2017].

Abstract: In this paper, we share our findings from a 2-year citizen science program called Mosquito Stoppers. This pest-oriented citizen science project is part of a larger coupled natural-human systems project seeking to understand the fundamental drivers of mosquito population density and spatial variability in potential exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens in a matrix of human construction, urban renewal, and individual behaviors. Focusing on residents in West Baltimore, participants were recruited through neighborhood workshops and festivals. Citizen scientists participated in yard surveys of potential mosquito habitat and in evaluating mosquito nuisance. We found that citizen scientists, with minimal education and training, were able to accurately collect data that reflect trends found in a comparable researcher-generated database.

Source: Jordan, R.C., Sorensen, A.E., Ladeau, S., 2017. Citizen Science as a Tool for Mosquito Control. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 33(3): 241-245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2987/17-6644R.1

Abstract: Although data is increasingly shared online and accessible for re-use, we still witness heterogeneous coverage of thematic areas and geographic regions. This especially becomes an issue when data is needed for large territories and including different nations, as, for example, required to support macro-regional development policies. Once identified, data gaps might be closed using different approaches. Existing—but so far non accessible—data might be made available; new public sector information could be gathered; or data might be acquired from the private sector. Our work explores a fourth option: closing data gaps with direct contributions from citizen (Citizen Science). This work summarizes a particular case study that was conducted in 2016 in the Danube Region. We provide a gap analysis over an existing macro-regional data infrastructure, and examine potential Citizen Science approaches that might help to close these gaps. We highlight already existing Citizen Science projects that could address a large part of the identified gaps, and suggest one particular new application in order to indicate how a—so far uncovered—gap might be approached. This new application addresses bioenergy as a particular field of the circular economy. On this basis we discuss the emerging opportunities and challenges for this particular way of public participation in regional development policy. We close by highlighting areas for future research.

Source: Lisjak, J., Schade, S., Kotsev, A., 2017. Closing Data Gaps with Citizen Science? Findings from the Danube Region. International Journal of Geo-Information 6(9): 277. DOI 10.3390/ijgi6090277

Abstract: Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis, thus allowing a more cost-efficient and robust monitoring of productivity levels.

Source: Thomas, E., Valdivia, J., Alcázar Caicedo, C., Quaedvlieg, J., Wadt, L.H.O., Corvera, R., 2017. NFTP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon. PLoS ONE 12(8). DOI: e0183743

Abstract: Background: The wide availability of the Internet and the growth of digital communication technologies have become an important tool for epidemiological studies and health surveillance. Influenzanet is a participatory surveillance system monitoring the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Europe since 2003. It is based on data provided by volunteers who self-report their symptoms via the Internet throughout the influenza season and currently involves 10 countries.

Objective: In this paper, we describe the Influenzanet system and provide an overview of results from several analyses that have been performed with the collected data, which include participant representativeness analyses, data validation (comparing ILI incidence rates between Influenzanet and sentinel medical practice networks), identification of ILI risk factors, and influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies previously published. Additionally, we present new VE analyses for the Netherlands, stratified by age and chronic illness and offer suggestions for further work and considerations on the continuity and sustainability of the participatory system.

Methods: Influenzanet comprises country-specific websites where residents can register to become volunteers to support influenza surveillance and have access to influenza-related information. Participants are recruited through different communication channels. Following registration, volunteers submit an intake questionnaire with their postal code and sociodemographic and medical characteristics, after which they are invited to report their symptoms via a weekly electronic newsletter reminder. Several thousands of participants have been engaged yearly in Influenzanet, with over 36,000 volunteers in the 2015-16 season alone.

Results: In summary, for some traits and in some countries (eg, influenza vaccination rates in the Netherlands), Influenzanet participants were representative of the general population. However, for other traits, they were not (eg, participants underrepresent the youngest and oldest age groups in 7 countries). The incidence of ILI in Influenzanet was found to be closely correlated although quantitatively higher than that obtained by the sentinel medical practice networks. Various risk factors for acquiring an ILI infection were identified. The VE studies performed with Influenzanet data suggest that this surveillance system could develop into a complementary tool to measure the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, eventually in real time.

Conclusions: Results from these analyses illustrate that Influenzanet has developed into a fast and flexible monitoring system that can complement the traditional influenza surveillance performed by sentinel medical practices. The uniformity of Influenzanet allows for direct comparison of ILI rates between countries. It also has the important advantage of yielding individual data, which can be used to identify risk factors. The way in which the Influenzanet system is constructed allows the collection of data that could be extended beyond those of ILI cases to monitor pandemic influenza and other common or emerging diseases.

Source: Koppeschaar, C.E., Colizza, V., Guerrisi, C., Turbelin, C., Duggan, J., Edmunds, W.J., Kjelsø, C., Mexia, R., Moreno, Y., Meloni, S., Paolotti, D., Perrotta, D., van Straten, E., Franco, A.O., 2017. Influenzanet: Citizens Among 10 Countries Collaborating to Monitor Influenza in Europe. JMIR Public Health Surveill 3(3): e66. DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.7429

Abstract: User-generated content (UGC) projects involve large numbers of mostly unpaid contributors collaborating to create content. Motivation for such contributions has been an active area of research. In prior research, motivation for contribution to UGC has been considered a single, static and individual phenomenon. In this paper, we argue that it is instead three separate but interrelated phenomena. Using the theory of helping behaviour as a framework and integrating social movement theory, we propose a stage theory that distinguishes three separate sets (initial, sustained and meta) of motivations for participation in UGC. We test this theory using a data set from a Wikimedia Editor Survey (Wikimedia Foundation, 2011). The results suggest several opportunities for further refinement of the theory but provide support for the main hypothesis, that different stages of contribution have distinct motives. The theory has implications for both researchers and practitioners who manage UGC projects.

Source: Crowston, K. Fagnot, I., 2018. Stages of Motivation for Contributing User-Generated Content:
A Theory and Empirical Test. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies
Vol 109: 89-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.08.005

Abstract: Citizen Science with mobile and wearable technology holds the possibility of unprecedented observation systems. Experts and policy makers are torn between enthusiasm and scepticism regarding the value of the resulting data, as their decision making traditionally relies on high-quality instrumentation and trained personnel measuring in a standardized way. In this paper, we (1) present an empirical behavior taxonomy of errors exhibited in non-expert smartphone-based sensing, based on four small exploratory studies, and discuss measures to mitigate their effects. We then present a large summative study (N=535) that compares instructions and technical measures to address these errors, both from the perspective of improvements to error frequency and perceived usability. Our results show that (2) technical measures without explanation notably reduce the perceived usability and (3) technical measures and instructions nicely complement each other: Their combination achieves a significant reduction in observed error rates while not affecting the user experience negatively.

Source: Budde, M., Schankin, A., Hoffmann, J., Danz, M., Riedel, T., Beigl, M., 2017. Participatory Sensing or Participatory Nonsense? Mitigating the Effect of Human Error on Data Quality in Citizen Science. Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies 1(3) No. 39. DOI: 10.1145/3131900

Abstract: The abundance of corals has declined significantly over past decades, to the point where several reef-building species in the Caribbean are now listed as threatened. Active reef restoration has expanded exponentially to help recover degraded coral populations and the ecological services associated with healthy and complex reefs. While restoration practitioners now grow hundreds of coral genotypes from several species within coral nurseries and thousands of corals are outplanted onto degraded reefs annually, the cost of these activities continues to be a limiting factor. We describe a citizen science program, Rescue a Reef (RAR), which trains participants in reef restoration and provides unique experiential learning opportunities to recover degraded coral reefs by propagating and transplanting threatened coral species. Between 2015–2017, 230 participants outplanted >1300 staghorn corals, showing that citizen scientists significantly contribute to reef restoration. Most importantly, corals outplanted by RAR participants showed the same survivorship as those outplanted by scientific experts. The direct benefits of using citizen scientists for restoration are enhanced when the educational opportunities offered by these expeditions are considered. Results from our survey showed significant improvements in coral reef ecology and restoration knowledge for RAR participants. Thus, the growing field of reef restoration based on the coral gardening method offers a unique opportunity for participatory public engagement. By participating in these programs, citizen scientists can go beyond data collection to active restoration of degraded resources.

Source: Hesley, D., Burdeno, D., Drury, C., Schopmeyer, S., Lirman, D., 2017. Citizen science benefits coral reef restoration activities. Journal for Nature Conservation. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2017.09.001